Tag Archives: Health Wellness

Fast Facts about Pro Vitality

Pro Vitality is Based in Nature and Backed By Science

Based in Nature—Whole Food, Human Food Chain Nutrients

GNLD Pro Vitality supplements provide the finest natural nutrients from whole grains, fruits and vegetables and fish to help you achieve optimal health.*


Backed by Science—Clinically Proven Formulas Assure Effectiveness

These nutrients are delivered in highly bio-efficient forms in exclusive, clinically proven formulas that maximize nutrient absorption, utilization and benefits by using the most advanced scientific methods and proprietary processes.*



Feed your cells—energize your life.*

Good nutrition begins at the cellular level. Tre-en-en is the world’s first and only whole grain lipids and sterols supplement proven to enhance energy and vitality by optimizing cell membrane function. It energizes your entire body by helping your cells function more efficiently.*



Protect your cells—optimize your immunity.*

With the protective power of carotenoids from carrots, tomatoes, spinach, red bell peppers, peaches, strawberries and apricots, this patented formula is the result of over 10 years of research and development. Carotenoid Complex is the world’s first and only whole food supplement clinically proven by USDA researchers to protect your heart, defend your cells, and boost your immune power.*



Balance and regulate your cells—maximize your good health.*

The world’s first complete fish oil supplement with guaranteed potency of all eight members of the omega-3 family. Recent human clinical trials proved its bioavailability to support heart and cardiovascular health, as presented at Experimental Biology 2008. Plus, GNLD’s fish oil sources are screened for more than 160 potential contaminants with an allowable detection limit of zero, so they are guaranteed pure!*




* This statement has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


We are facing a global health crisis!

Health surveys show that the incidence of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes is higher than ever before. This can be attributed largely to the state of our diets that are woefully inadequate in nutrient-rich whole foods.


The reality is that most of us have turned the healthy food pyramid upside down—too much of the wrong stuff, not enough of the right stuff!

• 90% of us don’t eat the recommended 5-13 servings of fruits and vegetables

• 70% of us admit to eating foods that actually contribute to poor health

• Less than 1 serving of whole grains are consumed on a daily basis—many don’t even get that

• Protective lipids and sterols have been stripped from whole grains to increase their shelf life

• Many don’t eat fish due to concerns about the presence of heavy metals and contaminants



• Leading global health authorities like the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control, and American Heart Association agree that good nutrition plays a critical role in lowering the risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes.

 • Everyone should increase consumption of whole-grain foods, fruits and vegetables, and foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids— and maintain a healthy weight.

 • But even those with good intentions to eat a healthy diet face challenges. Busy lifestyles, eating on-the-run, and the prevalence of processed foods all contribute towards nutritional gaps that would benefit from nutritional supplements.



• Whole-food nutrition clinically proven to strengthen the perfect foundation for lifelong health and vitality

• In convenient on-the-go packets

• Includes three scientifically-proven products: Tre-en-en, Carotenoid Complex, and Omega-III Salmon Oil Plus, providing key nutrients from whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and fish.

• Each packet provides powerful nutrients that support*:

o Cellular health for abundant energy

o Powerful antioxidant protection

o Optimum immune strength

o Heart and brain health

o Flexible, healthy joints

o Youthful skin, hair and nails

• Pro Vitality’s whole-food nutrition is the core supplement for healthy nutrition—no matter what your health goals!



Dogs and Cats Need Good Nutrition, Too!


Much like their human companions, dogs and cats are higher mammals with complex nutritional needs. They require a balance of proteins, lipids/sterols, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other nutrients for life, growth, and protection from illness and disease.



Again, like their human companions, pets may not always get all the nutrients they need. Grocery store and “generic” brand pet foods may not provide the highest-quality nutrition. Even “premium” pet foods vary in quality, despite their higher prices. Most important, your pets’ age, health, habits, and lifestyle can affect their nutrition even if you are doing your best to provide a complete and well-balanced diet!

Picky eaters. Pets, like people, have their preferences! Most pet owners have had at least one experience of Fluffy or Rover turning up their noses at dinner time.

Elderly pets. As cats and dogs grow older, their nutritional needs change. Even “senior” pet formulas may not meet your pet’s specific needs, particularly in light of the fact that different breeds “age” at very different rates.

Inactive pets. Despite our best intentions, our pets may not always get all the exercise they need. Lack of exercise may lead to obesity, and controlling calories may result in limiting the nutrient density and diversity of your pet’s daily diet. Sensible supplementation can provide the nutrients a pet needs without all the fat and calories of kibble or canned pet food.

Active animals. In contrast, some pets are highly active, and/or have higher-than-average nutritional needs due to dealing with cold or inclement weather when they are out at night or while their owners are at work. Even a regular diet of high-quality food may not meet all their nutritional needs.

Successful beggars. With the best of intentions (and understandable weakness in the face of soulful, pleading eyes!), many owners feed their pets leftovers from the dinner table. As a steady diet, scraps do not provide complete, balanced nutrition. Even as a treat, human food can trigger digestive upset which compromises nutritional absorption.



Whenever we take a pet into our household, we take responsibility for its health and well-being. In addition to providing shelter, love and companionship, food, water, and medical care, we have the ability to optimize their health, happiness, and longevity by providing optimal nutrition, for life!



As with all of GNLD’s products, Pet-Pal started with a close look at nature. After reviewing current literature and research on the dietary needs of dogs and cats, an optimum nutrients profile was developed and potencies were determined. Using this as a guide, raw materials were evaluated for purity, potency, and natural sourcing.


Unlike many pet supplements on the market, the basic ingredients in Pet-Pal are high-quality protein, carbohydrate, and desiccated liver. This not only provides a solid nutritional foundation, but contributes to the palatability and “chewability” of the tablets. Owners agree: most pets consider their daily Pet-Pal a special treat!


To further build toward the optimum nutrient profile and potencies, natural malt, yeast, lecithin, and calcium are added, establishing a broad-based nutrient value.


To complete the formula and achieve optimum nutrient levels in terms of potency, other nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, are added. The result is the finest pet supplement available, providing nutrients and potencies in a complete format not found in other formulations.




GNLD’s LDC™ stars in penguin cleanup operation!

In July 2000, an iron-ore carrier, the Treasure, sank outside Table Bay, Cape Town, South Africa sank off the coast of South Africa and leaked thousands of litres of crude oil into the sea. Approximately 25,000 African penguins were affected and faced certain death.

Huge undertaking
The cleanup operation was the largest wildlife rescue operation in history at the time. A huge contingent of international volunteers from as far as the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia assisted in the cleanup effort, and the feeling was definitely that this is an international crisis which affects the entire world.

GNLD’s LDC was the only detergent product that could successfully remove the thick crude oil from the tens of thousands of affected penguins from Dassen and Robben Islands.

Why LDC? LDC Light Duty Concentrate is a low-dose, low-burden, pH-neutral household detergent which is particularly effective in dispersing fats and oils. LDC did not yield harsh or negative side effects on the already distraught animals.

Saving lives
The birds were first sprayed with a light mixture of vegetable oil and ethanol alcohol to loosen the crude oil before being thoroughly washed at least seven or eight times in buckets of LDC and warm water. After repeated washings with LDC, the penguins were rinsed thoroughly until their feathers regained their natural waterproofing, allowing the birds to be released back into the ocean within a week or two. The thick crude oil affects the bird’s buoyancy and insulation, and if ingested, is toxic to the birds. A researcher at the University of Cape Town, who has conducted extensive research on the survival rate of cleaned penguins, said that the rescued birds will enjoy almost exactly the same lifespan as birds which have never been victims of an oil spill. Sarah Scarth, coordinator for the World-Wide Emergency Relief International Fund for Animal Welfare, said, “Without this incredible product, 25,000 penguins could have died. Thank you, GNLD, for your generous support during this environmental disaster!”

If these products can do this for penguins, imagine what it can do for you. GNLD products take the guess work out of nutrition, skin care, home care and personal care.


Diet and the global health crisis: WHO knew!

In their 2005 landmark report entitled “Chronic Disease: Avital Investment”, the World Health Organization (WHO) spotlights the dire state of global health, and sounds the alarm—we are quickly losing this battle. Here is what they told us:1

    Chronic Disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes) kills twice as many people as all infectious disease, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, influenza and pneumonia, combined.

    This count is expected to increase 17% by 2015. (Faster than the rate of population growth.)

    Unhealthy eating is identified as the #1 cause, followed by physical inactivity and tobacco use.

Strategy for prevention:




The first step in preventing chronic disease is changing our diet. Here is what the WHO and other global health authorities have to recommend:

Heart disease: Heart disease is the #1 killer, accounting for nearly one-third of all deaths world-wide. WHO’s nutritional strategy for prevention: Increase intake of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains; maintain a healthy weight. Likewise the American Heart Association’s2 nutritional keys for heart health: eat more fruits, vegetable, whole grains and fish rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

Cancer: 20 million people suffered with cancer in 2005. WHO projects a 50% increase in new cases of cancer in just 15 years. They found that dietary factors accounted for about 30% of cancers cases. To reduce the risk of cancer, WHO along with The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommend: Eat more fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

And of course, if you smoke, quit.3 The NCI in particular draws specific attention to the phyto-nutrient family of carotenoids, highlighting their role in cancer prevention.4

Diabetes: Diabetes is quickly becoming a global epidemic… 171,000,000 people suffered from it in 2005. And it is projected to grow to 366,000,000 by 2030… a 114% increase! In fact, many medical researchers now believe that for every person diagnosed with diabetes, there will be two more individuals in a state of ‘pre-diabetes’, resulting in more than 1,000,000,000 diabetic sufferers around the world.

The nutritional strategy for prevention according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA)5 and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH)6: reduce the consumption of fast, convenience and processed foods; eat more fruits, vegetables whole grains and omega-3 rich fish and be more physically active.

DIETARY SOLUTIONS: three GNLD products that can help solve this health crisis:

Whole GrainsTre-en-en Grain Concentrates – Feed your cells

Fruits & VegetablesCarotenoid Complex – Protect your cells

FishOmega-III Salmon Oil Plus – Balance & Regulate your cells

Pro Vitality Nutrition – Whole Food Nutrition for Lifelong Health and Vitality… in convenient, on-the-go packets



1 Preventing chronic disease: a vital investment. World Health

Organization,2005: http://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/en/index.html

2 http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=851

3 http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/

4 http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/prevention-genetics-causes/prevention

5 http://www.diabetes.org/nutrition-and-recipes/nutrition/overview.jsp

6 http://ndep.nih.gov/

Omega-III Salmon Oil Plus

Balance & Regulate your cells – Omega-III Salmon Oil Plus

Background: Not only are omega-3 fatty acids in general directly tied to heart health, but their individual abilities to lower triglycerides, increase HDL (good cholesterol), inhibit plaque formation, stabilize heart rhythm and maintain healthy veins and arteries have highlighted the huge importance of having all eight members of the omega-3 fatty acid family50. Researchers were aware of the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids before they were even publicized in the 1970s. In 1936, an epidemiologist studying the Inuit in Greenland observed a zero rate of incidence of heart disease in the population, and first drew connections between heart health and the presence of these fatty acids in the Inuit diet51,52. In 1980, Danish researchers documented the extent of the health protecting powers of omega-3 fatty acids by comparing the incidence of several diseases in Danish versus Greenland Inuit populations53. They showed the Danish population had 10 times more cases of heart attacks, 20 times more cases of Psoriasis, 25 times more cases of asthma, and 9 times more cases of diabetes than the Inuit.

GNLD Research: GNLD introduced Salmon Oil, derived from pure, natural Salmon, as the most biocompatible, whole food, human food chain source of omega-3 fatty acids. Throughout the 1980’s and 90’s the SAB followed scientific and technological developments in omega-3 supplementation. In the early 2000’s they directed the development of a unique technology called “molecular differentiation” which, for the first time, allowed consistent identification, quantification and delivery of all eight members of the omega-3 fatty acids family in a whole food supplement. Introduced in 2006, Omega-III Salmon Oil Plus set a new standard for excellence in omega-3 supplementation. Human clinical trials conducted under the direction of SAB member Dr. Arianna Carughi and presented at the Annual meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, April 200854, and at the annual meeting of the American College of Nutrition in October 200855, displayed powerful performance across a wide range of benefits, including:56

• Rapid bioavailability and assimilation; resulting in increased anti-inflammatory balance in cell membranes.

• Triglyceride reduction; on average, 17% in just 8 weeks.

• Improved omega-3 to omega-6 ratio; lowering indicators of heart disease risk.

• Improved omega-3 index; a 38% increase in this cardio-protective measure.

• Lowered the inflammatory index by 68%; reducing the tendency toward inflammation and inflammatory conditions.

Latest Findings: As more is being discovered about their importance to health, many scientists and researchers have coined the term “master molecules” to describe the power of omega-3 fatty acids. They are fundamental to human biochemistry, and have been proven to have an important role in health, vitality and longevity.

Cardiovascular health: In 2005, daily supplementation of omega- 3 fatty acids was shown to reduce risk of fatal heart failures in high risk patients57. In 2006 researchers looked at data from more than 340,000 participants and reported a 35% reduction in the risk of cardiac death, and a 45% reduction in the risk of sudden death for those who consumed 850 mg of dietary omega-3’s each day58. A 2007 study from Japan reported that daily supplementation resulted in a 24% reduction in angina (heart pain) and a 19% reduction in non-fatal coronary events59. That same year researchers from the University of Athens reported that high dietary omega-3 status equated to healthier more stable heart rhythm60.

Cognitive health: In 2005 researchers at Louisiana State University (LSU) showed that fish derived omega-3 fatty acid are not only vital to brain tissue building but exerts a protective effect against neuro-degeneration and brain function decline associated with Alzheimer’s61. In 2007 researchers published data that showed that elderly with the highest dietary omega-3 intake had significantly less cognitive decline than those with the lowest62. That same year it was shown that high dietary omega-3 intake equated to less decline in verbal ability amongst the elderly63. A 2008 study from Taiwan showed that 1.8 grams of supplemental Omega-3 fatty acids may improve general clinical function in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment64.

Vision health: In addition to the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on reducing the risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) by 70 per cent65, omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA, have been shown play an important role in the layer of nerve cells in the retina.

Pregnancy and lactation: The importance of omega-3 dietary intake during pregnancy and lactation has been shown in several recent studies. One recent example from Canada reported that an increased intake of the omega-3 DHA during pregnancy could produce improved motor function in the offspring in later life66.

Bone and Joint health: Confirming previous studies that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce and even prevent inflammation, A study published in the April 2006 issue of the journal Surgical Neurology showed that omega-3 supplementation is effective against back and neck pain67. In 2007, Swedish researchers showed that young men with the highest dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake in general; and DHA in particular also amassed the strongest bones68.

Pro Vitality Nutrition – Whole Food Nutrition for Lifelong Health and Vitality… in convenient, on-the-go packets

In my previous posts, we looked at other GNLD products that can help solve this health crisis:

Tre-en-en Grain Concentrates – Feed your cells

Carotenoid Complex – Protect your cells



50 Nettleton, J. A., 1995. Omega-3 Fatty Acids & Health, Chapter 3; Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Heart Disease; 77-137

51 Rabinovich, I. M. 1936, Clinical and other observation on Canadian Eskimos in the Eastern Arctic. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 34: 487-501

52 Urguhart, J. A.,1935. The most northerly practice in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Jouornal. 33:193-196

53 Kromann, N. and Green, A. 1980. Epidemiological studies in the Upernavrik district, Greenland. Acta Medica Scandanavia. 208:401-406.

54 Carughi, A. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Omega-3 Index and Red Blood Cell (RBC) Membrane Fatty Acid Composition. Annual meeting of Experimental Biology, April 2008

55 Carughi, A. Effect of Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on markers of cardiovascular health and inflammation. Annual meeting of the American College of Nutrition; October 2008

56 Effect of GNLD Salmon Oil Plus on Markers of Cardiovascular Health and Inflammation. News You Can Use, Volume 21, 2008

57 Leaf, A. Prevention of Fatal Arrhythmias in High-Risk Subjects by Fish Oil n-3 Fatty Acid Intake. Circulation;112(18):2762-2768, November 1, 2005

58 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Vol. 84, pp 5-17, July 2006

59 The Lancet; Vol.369, pp 1090 – 1098, March 2007

60 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Vol. 85, pp 1385-1391, May 2007

61 Journal of Clinical Investigation; October 2005

62 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; “The Zutphen Elderly Study”, Vol. 85, pp 1142-1147, April 2007

63 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Vol. 85; pp 1103-1111, April 2007

64 Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp 1538-1544, August 2008

65 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; August 2008

66 The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 152, pp. 356-364, March 2008

67 Surgical Neurology; Vol. 65, pp. 326-331, April 2006

68 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; March 2007

Carotenoid Complex

Protect your cells – Carotenoid Complex

Background: Carotenoids first took center-stage as protector nutrients in the mid 1970’s when researchers at the US Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified their role in reducing the risk of disease25. National Cancer Institute researcher Regina Ziegler went on to reveal its connection to lung cancer prevention in 198626, and then showed a lower risk of cancer in those with the highest dietary intake of fruit and vegetable-derived carotenoids27,28. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other studies at the time found carotenoids also functioned in heart health and reduced the risk of heart disease29,30. Proof of benefit soon expanded to include eye health and visual acuity31 and immune function32.

GNLD Research: Research conducted on GNLD’s Carotenoid Complex has spanned more than 15 years. It started with the first ever proof of bioavailability of whole food-derived carotenoids33,34. USDA researchers went on to reaffirm its bioavailability and then demonstrated its cardio-protective35,36 and cellular protective powers37. This was followed by two more studies conducted by the USDA researchers showing Carotenoid Complex’s beneficial effects on immune capacity38,39. In 2001, GNLD researchers reaffirmed bioavailability across an even broader spectrum of dietary carotenoids40.

Latest Findings: Evidence supporting the importance of carotenoid intake for health benefits continues to mount. Concern by leading health authorities over insufficient carotenoid consumption has resulted in campaigns to increase awareness for higher levels of carotenoid intake41,42.

Heart and cardiovascular health: A 2004 study conducted by a team at the Harvard Medical School found that men in the top quintile with higher levels of serum carotenoids (including alphacarotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin) had a 40% decreased risk of ischemic stroke than those with the lowest serum levels.43 Similarly, a 2008 study of 559 men showed that increased intake of alpha and beta carotene from carrots equated to a 17% reduction in risk of cardiovascular (CVD) death.44 Swedish researchers in 2006 correlated consistently lower levels of the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta cryptoxanthin with coronary artery disease occurrence. The healthy controls had significantly higher levels of these carotenoids in their blood45.

Prostate health: Since the early nineties, scientific research has reported a connection between the carotenoid Lycopene and prostate cancer risk reduction. One study showed that Lycopene (from tomatoes) present in the diet 4 to 5 times per week, attributed to a 25% reduction in prostate cancer risk. The 2-year study found that an 82% increase in blood Lycopene levels corresponded with a 42% decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels46.

Immune health: Swedish researchers in 2001 observed higher levels of natural killer cells (NK cells) in people with higher levels of these carotenoids, confirming the relationship between dietary carotenoid intake, immune capacity and health.

Vision health: In a 48-week intervention trial, researchers tested Lutein supplementation for vision protective-function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). They concluded: “Comparing the development of vision measures against the natural loss expected to occur over the course of the 48 weeks, most measures showed reduced decline, and these reductions were significant for normal illumination”47.

Mental performance: A2007 French study48 showed a connection between carotenoids and cognitive performance in a healthy elderly population. Study author Tasnime Akbaraly states “In this study, low levels of specific plasma carotenoids (lycopene and zeaxanthin) were associated to poor cognitive functioning in a highly educated, community-dwelling elderly population”.

Inflammatory health: A 2005 UK study by Cambridge University49 researchers showed that study subjects with the highest (top one third) daily intake of beta-cryptoxanthin had only about one-half the risk of developing polyarthritis than those in the bottom one-third. Researchers commented that even modest increases in beta-cryptoxanthin intake were associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Pro Vitality Nutrition – Whole Food Nutrition for Lifelong Health and Vitality… in convenient, on-the-go packets

In my next post, we will look at another GNLD product that can help solve this health crisis:

Omega-III Salmon Oil Plus – Balance & Regulate your cells

In my previous post, we looked at another GNLD product that can help solve this health crisis:

Tre-en-en Grain Concentrates – Feed your cells

Carotenoid Complex – Protect your cells



25 http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes

26 Ziegler, R. G., et al; Carotenoid intake, vegetables, and the risk of lung cancer among white men in New Jersey; 1986, American Journal of Epidemiology, 123:1080-1093

27 Ziegler, R. G., A review of epidemiologic evidence that carotenoids reduce the risk of cancer. 1989. Journal of Nutrition. 119:116-122

28 Ziegler, R. G., Vegetables, Fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. 1991. Am. Jour. Clin. Nutr. 53:251S-259S

29 Verlangieri, A. J. et al; Fruit and vegetable consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality. 1985. Medical Hypothesis. 16:7-15

30 Rimm, E. B., et al: Dietary intake and risk of coronary heart disease in men. 1993, New England Journal of Medicine. 328:1450-1456

31 Knekt, P., et al; Serum antioxidant vitamins and risk of cataract. 1992. British Medical Journal. 305:1392-1394

32 Carotenoids in Human Health, 1993. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 691:61-67

33 Carughi, A. & Hooper, FG. Plasma carotenoid concentrations beore and after supplementation with a carotenoid mixture. 1993. Annals of the New York

Academy of Sciences. 691:244-245

34 Carughi, A., Hooper, FG.; Plasma carotenoids before and after supplementation with a carotenoid mixture; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; Volume 59, pages 896-9

35 Z Dixon, B Burri, J Erdman, et al ; Effects of a carotene-deficient diet on measures of oxidative susceptibility and superoxide dismutase activity in adult women;; Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Volume 17, Number 6, pages 537-44

36 Y Lin, B Burri, et al; Effects of low dietary carotene intake on oxidative susceptibility in women; FASEB Journal, Volume 10, Number 3, page A478, April 1996

37 Z Dixon, B Burri, et al; Effect of low carotene diet on malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; FASEB Journal, Volume 10, Number 3, page A240, April 1996

38 T Kramer, B Burri, et al; Carotenoid-flavonoid modulated immune response in women; FASEB Journal, Volume 9, Number 3, page A170, April 1995

39 T Kramer, B Burri, et al; Modulated mitogenic proliferative responsiveness of lymphocytes in whole-blood culture after a low-carotene diet and mixed carotenoid supplementation in women; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

1997, Volume 65, pages 871-5

40 Carughi, A., Omaye, S., Furst, A.; Plasma carotenoid response to supplementation of a mix of fruits and vegetables; Proceedings of Experimental Biology, March 31 – April 4, 2001

41 http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/5ADay/

42 http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/prevention-genetics-causes/prevention

43 Stroke. 2004; 35:1584-1588

44 2008, Journal of Nutrition: February, 138:344-350.

45 2006. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease.Published on-line: doi: 10.1016/numecd.2006.02.006

46 Urological Oncology (vol. 23, pp. 383-385)

47 Ophthalmology (BMC Ophthalmology 2006, 6:23)

48 The Journal of Gerontology: Medical Science; 2007; 3:308-316